|Uxue Barkos, leader of Geroa Bai|
The UPN won only 15 seats, down four from 2011, while their allies the right-wing Spanish People’s Party (of Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy) won 2, half of their quota in 2011.
Instead, Uzue Barkos, leader of the pro-Basque coalition Geroa Bai (“Yes to the Future”) – itself a coalition of centre-left Basque nationalist association Zabaltzen and the centre-right Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ-PNV) – approached other pro-Basque parties to negotiate a coalition government after her party won 9 seats.
In order to form government, Geroa Bai needed to secure 26 seats in the 50-seat Navarrese parliament – 17 more than their direct mandate.
Geroa Bai immediately entered into discussions with the Basque leftist pro-independence coalition Euskal Herria Bildu ("Basque Country Unite", EH Bildu), which won 8 seats, the new Spanish anti-austerity party Podemos (7 seats) and the left-federalist Izquierda-Ezkerra ("Left-Left", I-E) – the Navarra affiliate of Spain's Izquierda Unida ("United Left") – with 2 seats.
Importantly, all four parties share a series of common policies, including demanding increased self-government for Navarre, and further protection for the Basque language.
While Barkos initially left open the possibility that the centre-left Socialist Party of Navarre (PSN) could be asked to join the coalition, both EH Bildu and Podemos balked at the proposal, as the PSN had supported the UPN in government during the last parliamentary term.
Basque language and autonomy
|Navarre within the greater Basque country|
The end of the UPN’s reign is not the only historic aspect of the election.
Despite some clear differences, the election manifestos of Geroa Bai, EH Bildu, Podemos and I-E were in broad agreement on two important issues – increased political autonomy for Navarre, and the protection and extension of the Basque language.
While it is not a part of Spain's official "País Vasco" ("Basque Country"), Navarre – “Nafarroa” in Euskadi, the Basque language – is the largest of the seven provinces of Euskal Herria (the greater Basque homeland), and Basque is still spoken in large parts, particularly in the north.
However, the language and culture have suffered from years of neglect and oppression, to the point where in 2006 only 11.1 percent of Navarrans identified as full speakers of Basque (although many more described themselves as "passive" users of the language).
All four parties went to the elections vowing to make the Basque-language medium “D model” of education available throughout schools in Navarre, and have committed to the “normalisation” of Basque in the region.
They also agree on increasing the use of Basque in public administration.
Navarre is currently divided into three linguistic zones, and Basque is only an official language – alongside Spanish – in the northern zone.
All four parties agree on overcoming this division, however only EH Bildu and I-E are openly calling for the language to be granted full official status throughout all of Navarre.
EH Bildu have gone a step further again, calling for policies to "ensure that the entire student population" of Navarre has a basic knowledge of Basque.
The four parties also advocate increased political autonomy for Navarre, although again they differ on questions of degree and time-frame.
EH Bildu wants a "change of political status" within the new electoral term, while Geroa Bai is more circumspect, arguing that political change should come "at the time when the political situation allows it."
I-E takes a similarly gradualist approach, suggesting that Navarre should take on more powers as Spain progresses towards a "federal and plurinational republic" that recognises the right to self-determination.
Podemos has been even less specific on the issue, saying that Navarre should be devolved "as many powers as the Navarrese population decides."
Results in Navarre’s local and municipal elections also saw success for pro-Basque parties.
Despite losing ground in local elections within the Basque Country, EH Bildu won coalition government in the Navarrese capital Iruña (Pamplona), ending 20 years of right-wing, pro-Spanish rule.
EH Bildu’s mayoral candidate Joseba Asiron secured the position with support from Geroa Bai, the citizens’ platform Aranzadi (a grass-roots initiative supported by Podemos) and I-E.
Asiron delivered his inaugural speech in both Basque and Spanish, committing to working for peace and coexistence between Basque and Spanish cultures in the city.
The victory for pro-Basque forces in Navarre coincides with the rise in separatist sentiment in other parts of Spain, particularly in Catalonia, which held a non-binding referendum on independence last November.
It also takes place as the decades-long conflict in the Basque Country appears to be drawing to a final close, the Basque separatist armed group Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (“Basque Homeland and Liberty”, ETA) having ended its armed insurgency and is now beginning to put its weapons beyond use.
The Spanish state refuses to recognise these moves towards peaceful self-determination, however, insisting on a policy of crushing ETA entirely while persecuting pro-independence Basques, and has declared a Catalan vote on independence illegal.
At the same time, the rapid rise of the anti-austerity party Podemos out of the massive street protests of recent years threatens to unravel the two party hegemony that has governed Spain since the “restoration” of democracy in the 1970s.
|UPN leader, Yolanda Barcina|
In the aftermath of the Navarre vote, outgoing premier of Navarre and leader of the UPN, Yolanda Barcina, described the wins for alternative parties as “destabilising” for Spain.
She hyperbolically compared the situation to the rise of the Nazis in Germany or Perón in Argentina, and warned of a “Venezuela-like” situation in Spain.
Barcina also urged Pablo Iglesias, national leader of Podemos, to “think” before forming alliances with parties that aim "to break up Spain or free ETA prisoners", but Podemos leader in Navarre Laura Perez said her party "will not frustrate" political change in Navarre.
Decisions on any agreement, Perez said, "will not be taken in Madrid” but in the "Citizens' Assembly of Navarre", Podemos' highest decision-making body in the territory.
The desperation evident in Barcina's bombastic comments reflects a deap-seated unease felt at the heart of the Spanish ruling class.
The growing movements against austerity across Spain, and calls for independence or increased autonomy in various regions – in Galicia and Andalucía as well as Catalonia and the Basque Country – are raising questions, not just of the old ruling elite, but also about the long-term viability of the Spanish state itself.
(Updated on 23 June 2015).